Sources

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Alcohol

References:

 

  1. Henderson J, Gray R, Brocklehurst P. Systematic review of effects of low-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure on pregnancy outcome. BJOG. 2007 Mar;114(3):243-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2006.01163.x. Epub 2007 Jan 12. Erratum in: BJOG. 2007 Jul;114(7):914-5. PMID: 17233797.

  2. Heller M, Burd L. Review of ethanol dispersion, distribution, and elimination from the fetal compartment. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2014 Apr;100(4):277-83. doi: 10.1002/bdra.23232. Epub 2014 Mar 10. PMID: 24616297.

  3. Williams JF, Smith VC; COMMITTEE ON SUBSTANCE ABUSE. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics. 2015 Nov;136(5):e1395-406. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-3113. Epub 2015 Oct 19. PMID: 26482673.

  4. Fetal Alcohol Exposure. National Institutes of Health. (2015). https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/brochures-and-fact-sheets/fetal-alcohol-exposure. (Accessed on 07/22/2021).

  5. Feldman HS, Jones KL, Lindsay S, Slymen D, Klonoff-Cohen H, Kao K, Rao S, Chambers C. Prenatal alcohol exposure patterns and alcohol-related birth defects and growth deficiencies: a prospective study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012 Apr;36(4):670-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01664.x. Epub 2012 Jan 17. PMID: 22250768.

  6. O'Leary CM, Nassar N, Kurinczuk JJ, de Klerk N, Geelhoed E, Elliott EJ, Bower C. Prenatal alcohol exposure and risk of birth defects. Pediatrics. 2010 Oct;126(4):e843-50. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-0256. Epub 2010 Sep 27. PMID: 20876169.

  7. The Interagency Coordinating Committee on FASDs. Consensus statement on recognizing Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) in primary health care of children. 2011. www.niaaa.nih.gov/sites/default/files/ARNDConferenceConsensusStatementBooklet_Complete.pdf (Accessed on 07/22/2021).

  8. Hoyme HE, Kalberg WO, Elliott AJ, Blankenship J, Buckley D, Marais AS, Manning MA, Robinson LK, Adam MP, Abdul-Rahman O, Jewett T, Coles CD, Chambers C, Jones KL, Adnams CM, Shah PE, Riley EP, Charness ME, Warren KR, May PA. Updated Clinical Guidelines for Diagnosing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics. 2016 Aug;138(2):e20154256. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-4256. Epub 2016 Jul 27. PMID: 27464676; PMCID: PMC4960726.

  9. Paintner A, Williams AD, Burd L. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders--implications for child neurology, part 2: diagnosis and management. J Child Neurol. 2012 Mar;27(3):355-62. doi: 10.1177/0883073811428377. Epub 2012 Jan 12. PMID: 22241713.

  10. Streissguth AP, Aase JM, Clarren SK, Randels SP, LaDue RA, Smith DF. Fetal alcohol syndrome in adolescents and adults. JAMA. 1991 Apr 17;265(15):1961-7. PMID: 2008025.

  11. Clarren SK, Smith DW. The fetal alcohol syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1978 May 11;298(19):1063-7. doi: 10.1056/NEJM197805112981906. PMID: 347295.

  12. Spohr HL, Willms J, Steinhausen HC. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in young adulthood. J Pediatr. 2007 Feb;150(2):175-9, 179.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.11.044. PMID: 17236896.

  13. O'Connor MJ, Paley B. Psychiatric conditions associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2009;15(3):225-34. doi: 10.1002/ddrr.74. PMID: 19731386.

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Tobacco & Nicotine

  1. Drake P, Driscoll AK, Mathews TJ. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy: United States, 2016. NCHS Data Brief, no 305. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2018.

  2. Larcombe AN. Early-life exposure to electronic cigarettes: cause for concern. Lancet Respir Med. 2019 Nov;7(11):985-992. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(19)30189-4. Epub 2019 May 31. PMID: 31160239.

  3. Pineles BL, Hsu S, Park E, Samet JM. Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Perinatal Death and Maternal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke During Pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 2016 Jul 15;184(2):87-97. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwv301. Epub 2016 Jul 1. PMID: 27370789; PMCID: PMC4945701.

  4. Pereira PP, Da Mata FA, Figueiredo AC, de Andrade KR, Pereira MG. Maternal Active Smoking During Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight in the Americas: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 May 1;19(5):497-505. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw228. PMID: 28403455.

  5. Castles A, Adams EK, Melvin CL, Kelsch C, Boulton ML. Effects of smoking during pregnancy. Five meta-analyses. Am J Prev Med. 1999 Apr;16(3):208-15. doi: 10.1016/s0749-3797(98)00089-0. PMID: 10198660.

  6. Law KL, Stroud LR, LaGasse LL, Niaura R, Liu J, Lester BM. Smoking during pregnancy and newborn neurobehavior. Pediatrics. 2003 Jun;111(6 Pt 1):1318-23. doi: 10.1542/peds.111.6.1318. PMID: 12777547.

  7. Haslinger C, Bamert H, Rauh M, Burkhardt T, Schäffer L. Effect of maternal smoking on stress physiology in healthy neonates. J Perinatol. 2018 Feb;38(2):132-136. doi: 10.1038/jp.2017.172. Epub 2017 Nov 9. PMID: 29120451.

  8. Weissman MM, Warner V, Wickramaratne PJ, Kandel DB. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and psychopathology in offspring followed to adulthood. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999 Jul;38(7):892-9. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199907000-00020. PMID: 10405508.

  9. Wakschlag LS, Lahey BB, Loeber R, Green SM, Gordon RA, Leventhal BL. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of conduct disorder in boys. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997 Jul;54(7):670-6. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830190098010. PMID: 9236551.

  10. Linnet KM, Wisborg K, Obel C, Secher NJ, Thomsen PH, Agerbo E, Henriksen TB. Smoking during pregnancy and the risk for hyperkinetic disorder in offspring. Pediatrics. 2005 Aug;116(2):462-7. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-2054. PMID: 16061604.

  11. Thapar A, Fowler T, Rice F, Scourfield J, van den Bree M, Thomas H, Harold G, Hay D. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in offspring. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Nov;160(11):1985-9. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.11.1985. PMID: 14594745.

  12. Browne HA, Modabbernia A, Buxbaum JD, Hansen SN, Schendel DE, Parner ET, Reichenberg A, Grice DE. Prenatal Maternal Smoking and Increased Risk for Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016 Sep;55(9):784-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2016.06.010. Epub 2016 Jul 21. PMID: 27566119.

  13. Anderson TM, Lavista Ferres JM, Ren SY, Moon RY, Goldstein RD, Ramirez JM, Mitchell EA. Maternal Smoking Before and During Pregnancy and the Risk of Sudden Unexpected Infant Death. Pediatrics. 2019 Apr;143(4):e20183325. doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-3325. Epub 2019 Mar 11. PMID: 30858347; PMCID: PMC6564075.

  14. Montgomery SM, Ekbom A. Smoking during pregnancy and diabetes mellitus in a British longitudinal birth cohort. BMJ. 2002 Jan 5;324(7328):26-7. doi: 10.1136/bmj.324.7328.26. PMID: 11777801; PMCID: PMC61655.

  15. Skorge TD, Eagan TM, Eide GE, Gulsvik A, Bakke PS. The adult incidence of asthma and respiratory symptoms by passive smoking in uterus or in childhood. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Jul 1;172(1):61-6. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200409-1158OC. Epub 2005 Apr 1. PMID: 15805186.

  16. Burke H, Leonardi-Bee J, Hashim A, Pine-Abata H, Chen Y, Cook DG, Britton JR, McKeever TM. Prenatal and passive smoke exposure and incidence of asthma and wheeze: systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2012 Apr;129(4):735-44. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-2196. Epub 2012 Mar 19. PMID: 22430451.

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Stimulants

  1. Plessinger MA, Woods JR Jr. Maternal, placental, and fetal pathophysiology of cocaine exposure during pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Jun;36(2):267-78. doi: 10.1097/00003081-199306000-00008. PMID: 8513624.

  2. Gouin K, Murphy K, Shah PS; Knowledge Synthesis group on Determinants of Low Birth Weight and Preterm Births. Effects of cocaine use during pregnancy on low birthweight and preterm birth: systematic review and metaanalyses. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Apr;204(4):340.e1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2010.11.013. Epub 2011 Jan 22. PMID: 21257143.

  3. Bauer CR, Langer JC, Shankaran S, Bada HS, Lester B, Wright LL, Krause-Steinrauf H, Smeriglio VL, Finnegan LP, Maza PL, Verter J. Acute neonatal effects of cocaine exposure during pregnancy. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 Sep;159(9):824-34. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.159.9.824. PMID: 16143741.

  4. Eyler FD, Behnke M, Garvan CW, Woods NS, Wobie K, Conlon M. Newborn evaluations of toxicity and withdrawal related to prenatal cocaine exposure. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2001 Sep-Oct;23(5):399-411. doi: 10.1016/s0892-0362(01)00166-0. PMID: 11711242.

  5. Kalaitzopoulos DR, Chatzistergiou K, Amylidi AL, Kokkinidis DG, Goulis DG. Effect of Methamphetamine Hydrochloride on Pregnancy Outcome: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Addict Med. 2018 May/Jun;12(3):220-226. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000391. PMID: 29509557.

  6. Nguyen D, Smith LM, Lagasse LL, Derauf C, Grant P, Shah R, Arria A, Huestis MA, Haning W, Strauss A, Della Grotta S, Liu J, Lester BM. Intrauterine growth of infants exposed to prenatal methamphetamine: results from the infant development, environment, and lifestyle study. J Pediatr. 2010 Aug;157(2):337-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.04.024. Epub 2010 Jun 8. PMID: 20570284; PMCID: PMC3018351.

  7. Arria AM, Derauf C, Lagasse LL, Grant P, Shah R, Smith L, Haning W, Huestis M, Strauss A, Della Grotta S, Liu J, Lester B. Methamphetamine and other substance use during pregnancy: preliminary estimates from the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study. Matern Child Health J. 2006 May;10(3):293-302. doi: 10.1007/s10995-005-0052-0. Epub 2006 Jan 5. PMID: 16395620.

  8. Smith LM, LaGasse LL, Derauf C, Grant P, Shah R, Arria A, Huestis M, Haning W, Strauss A, Della Grotta S, Liu J, Lester BM. The infant development, environment, and lifestyle study: effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure, polydrug exposure, and poverty on intrauterine growth. Pediatrics. 2006 Sep;118(3):1149-56. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-2564. PMID: 16951010.

  9. Gorman MC, Orme KS, Nguyen NT, Kent EJ 3rd, Caughey AB. Outcomes in pregnancies complicated by methamphetamine use. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Oct;211(4):429.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.06.005. Epub 2014 Jun 4. PMID: 24905417.

  10. Conradt E, Sheinkopf SJ, Lester BM, Tronick E, LaGasse LL, Shankaran S, Bada H, Bauer CR, Whitaker TM, Hammond JA; Maternal Lifestyle Study. Prenatal substance exposure: neurobiologic organization at 1 month. J Pediatr. 2013 Oct;163(4):989-94.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.04.033. Epub 2013 Jun 4. PMID: 23743094; PMCID: PMC3773295.

  11. Lambert BL, Bauer CR. Developmental and behavioral consequences of prenatal cocaine exposure: a review. J Perinatol. 2012 Nov;32(11):819-28. doi: 10.1038/jp.2012.90. Epub 2012 Jul 12. PMID: 22791278; PMCID: PMC4143247.

  12. LaGasse LL, Derauf C, Smith LM, Newman E, Shah R, Neal C, Arria A, Huestis MA, DellaGrotta S, Lin H, Dansereau LM, Lester BM. Prenatal methamphetamine exposure and childhood behavior problems at 3 and 5 years of age. Pediatrics. 2012 Apr;129(4):681-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-2209. Epub 2012 Mar 19. PMID: 22430455; PMCID: PMC3313637.

  13. Kwiatkowski MA, Donald KA, Stein DJ, Ipser J, Thomas KGF, Roos A. Cognitive outcomes in prenatal methamphetamine exposed children aged six to seven years. Compr Psychiatry. 2018 Jan;80:24-33. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2017.08.003. Epub 2017 Aug 24. PMID: 28950153.

Opioids

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  1. Hirai AH, Ko JY, Owens PL, Stocks C, Patrick SW. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome and Maternal Opioid-Related Diagnoses in the US, 2010-2017. JAMA. 2021 Jan 12;325(2):146-155. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.24991. PMID: 33433576; PMCID: PMC7804920.

  2. Maeda A, Bateman BT, Clancy CR, Creanga AA, Leffert LR. Opioid abuse and dependence during pregnancy: temporal trends and obstetrical outcomes. Anesthesiology. 2014 Dec;121(6):1158-65. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000472. PMID: 25405293.

  3. Kaltenbach K, Berghella V, Finnegan L. Opioid dependence during pregnancy. Effects and management. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1998 Mar;25(1):139-51. doi: 10.1016/s0889-8545(05)70362-4. PMID: 9547764.

  4. Azuine RE, Ji Y, Chang HY, Kim Y, Ji H, DiBari J, Hong X, Wang G, Singh GK, Pearson C, Zuckerman B, Surkan PJ, Wang X. Prenatal Risk Factors and Perinatal and Postnatal Outcomes Associated With Maternal Opioid Exposure in an Urban, Low-Income, Multiethnic US Population. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Jun 5;2(6):e196405. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.6405. PMID: 31251378; PMCID: PMC6604084.

  5. Patrick SW, Barfield WD, Poindexter BB; COMMITTEE ON FETUS AND NEWBORN, COMMITTEE ON SUBSTANCE USE AND PREVENTION. Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome. Pediatrics. 2020 Nov;146(5):e2020029074. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-029074. PMID: 33106341.

  6. Velez M, Jansson LM. The Opioid dependent mother and newborn dyad: non-pharmacologic care. J Addict Med. 2008 Sep;2(3):113-20. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0b013e31817e6105. PMID: 19727440; PMCID: PMC2729936.

  7. Kocherlakota P. Neonatal abstinence syndrome. Pediatrics. 2014 Aug;134(2):e547-61. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-3524. PMID: 25070299.

  8. Zelson C, Rubio E, Wasserman E. Neonatal narcotic addiction: 10 year observation. Pediatrics. 1971 Aug;48(2):178-89. PMID: 5560613.

Marijuana

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  1. Gunn JK, Rosales CB, Center KE, Nuñez A, Gibson SJ, Christ C, Ehiri JE. Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2016 Apr 5;6(4):e009986. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009986. PMID: 27048634; PMCID: PMC4823436.

  2. Corsi DJ, Walsh L, Weiss D, Hsu H, El-Chaar D, Hawken S, Fell DB, Walker M. Association Between Self-reported Prenatal Cannabis Use and Maternal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Outcomes. JAMA. 2019 Jul 9;322(2):145-152. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.8734. PMID: 31211826; PMCID: PMC6582262.

  3. Kharbanda EO, Vazquez-Benitez G, Kunin-Batson A, Nordin JD, Olsen A, Romitti PA. Birth and early developmental screening outcomes associated with cannabis exposure during pregnancy. J Perinatol. 2020 Mar;40(3):473-480. doi: 10.1038/s41372-019-0576-6. Epub 2020 Jan 7. PMID: 31911642; PMCID: PMC7047636.

  4. Conner SN, Bedell V, Lipsey K, Macones GA, Cahill AG, Tuuli MG. Maternal Marijuana Use and Adverse Neonatal Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Oct;128(4):713-723. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001649. PMID: 27607879.

  5. Corsi DJ, Donelle J, Sucha E, Hawken S, Hsu H, El-Chaâr D, Bisnaire L, Fell D, Wen SW, Walker M. Maternal cannabis use in pregnancy and child neurodevelopmental outcomes. Nat Med. 2020 Oct;26(10):1536-1540. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-1002-5. Epub 2020 Aug 10. PMID: 32778828.

  6. Grant KS, Petroff R, Isoherranen N, Stella N, Burbacher TM. Cannabis use during pregnancy: Pharmacokinetics and effects on child development. Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Feb;182:133-151. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2017.08.014. Epub 2017 Aug 25. PMID: 28847562; PMCID: PMC6211194.

  7. Fried PA, Watkinson B, Gray R. Differential effects on cognitive functioning in 9- to 12-year olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1998 May-Jun;20(3):293-306. doi: 10.1016/s0892-0362(97)00091-3. PMID: 9638687.

  8. Fried PA, Watkinson B, Gray R. Differential effects on cognitive functioning in 13- to 16-year-olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2003 Jul-Aug;25(4):427-36. doi: 10.1016/s0892-0362(03)00029-1. PMID: 12798960.

  9. Fried PA, Watkinson B. Differential effects on facets of attention in adolescents prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2001 Sep-Oct;23(5):421-30. doi: 10.1016/s0892-0362(01)00160-x. PMID: 11711244.

  10. Fried PA, Watkinson B, Siegel LS. Reading and language in 9- to 12-year olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marijuana. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1997 May-Jun;19(3):171-83. doi: 10.1016/s0892-0362(97)00015-9. PMID: 9200137.

  11. Huizink AC, Mulder EJ. Maternal smoking, drinking or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30(1):24-41. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.04.005. Epub 2005 Aug 10. PMID: 16095697.

  12. Leech SL, Richardson GA, Goldschmidt L, Day NL. Prenatal substance exposure: effects on attention and impulsivity of 6-year-olds. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1999 Mar-Apr;21(2):109-18. doi: 10.1016/s0892-0362(98)00042-7. PMID: 10192271.

  13. Day NL, Leech SL, Goldschmidt L. The effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on delinquent behaviors are mediated by measures of neurocognitive functioning. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2011 Jan-Feb;33(1):129-36. doi: 10.1016/j.ntt.2010.07.006. PMID: 21256427; PMCID: PMC3052937.

  14. Leech SL, Larkby CA, Day R, Day NL. Predictors and correlates of high levels of depression and anxiety symptoms among children at age 10. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 Feb;45(2):223-230. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000184930.18552.4d. PMID: 16429093.

  15. Huizink AC. Prenatal cannabis exposure and infant outcomes: overview of studies. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Jul 3;52:45-52. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.09.014. Epub 2013 Sep 27. PMID: 24075896.

  16. Paul SE, Hatoum AS, Fine JD, Johnson EC, Hansen I, Karcher NR, Moreau AL, Bondy E, Qu Y, Carter EB, Rogers CE, Agrawal A, Barch DM, Bogdan R. Associations Between Prenatal Cannabis Exposure and Childhood Outcomes: Results From the ABCD Study. JAMA Psychiatry. 2021 Jan 1;78(1):64-76. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.2902. PMID: 32965490; PMCID: PMC7512132.

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