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Tobacco & Nicotine

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  2. Maeda A, Bateman BT, Clancy CR, Creanga AA, Leffert LR. Opioid abuse and dependence during pregnancy: temporal trends and obstetrical outcomes. Anesthesiology. 2014 Dec;121(6):1158-65. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000472. PMID: 25405293.

  3. Kaltenbach K, Berghella V, Finnegan L. Opioid dependence during pregnancy. Effects and management. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1998 Mar;25(1):139-51. doi: 10.1016/s0889-8545(05)70362-4. PMID: 9547764.

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